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Software development (also known as application development, software design, designing software, software application development, enterprise application development, or platform development) is the development of a software product. The term "software development" may be used to refer to the activity of computer programming, which is the process of writing and maintaining the source code, but in a broader sense of the term it includes all that is involved between the conception of the desired software through to the final manifestation of the software, ideally in a planned and structured process. Therefore, software development may include research, new development, prototyping, modification, reuse, re-engineering, maintenance, or any other activities that result in software products.
Software can be developed for a variety of purposes, the three most common being to meet specific needs of a specific client/business (the case with custom software), to meet a perceived need of some set of potential users (the case with commercial and open source software), or for personal use (e.g. a scientist may write software to automate a mundane task). Embedded software development, that is, the development of embedded software such as used for controlling consumer products, requires the development process to be integrated with the development of the controlled physical product.
The need for better quality control of the software development process has given rise to the discipline of software engineering, which aims to apply the systematic approach exemplified in the engineering paradigm to the process of software development.
A database is a structured collection of data. The data are typically organized to model relevant aspects of reality (for example, the availability of rooms in hotels), in a way that supports processes requiring this information (for example, finding a hotel with vacancies).
The term database is correctly applied to the data and their supporting data structures, and not to the database management system (DBMS). The database data collection with DBMS is called a database system.
The term database system implies that the data are managed to some level of quality (measured in terms of accuracy, availability, usability, and resilience) and this in turn often implies the use of a general-purpose database management system (DBMS). A general-purpose DBMS is typically a complex software system that meets many usage requirements to properly maintain its databases which are often large and complex.
This is specially the case with client-server, near-real time transactional systems, in which multiple users have access to data, data is concurrently entered and inquired for in ways that preclude single-thread batch processing. Most of the complexity of those requirements are still present with personal, desktop-based database systems.
Well known DBMSs include FoxPro, IBM DB2, Linter, Microsoft Access, Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL and SQLite. A database is not generally portable across different DBMS, but different DBMSs can inter-operate to some degree by using standards like SQL and ODBC together to support a single application built over more than one database. A DBMS also needs to provide effective run-time execution to properly support (e.g., in terms of performance, availability, and security) as many database end-users as needed.
A way to classify databases involves the type of their contents, for example: bibliographic, document-text, statistical, or multimedia objects. Another way is by their application area, for example: accounting, music compositions, movies, banking, manufacturing, or insurance.
The term database may be narrowed to specify particular aspects of organized collection of data and may refer to the logical database, to the physical database as data content in computer data storage or to many other database sub-definitions.
In most common use, a server is a physical computer (a computer hardware system) dedicated to run one or more services (as a host), to serve the needs of the users of other computers on a network. Depending on the computing service that it offers it could be a database server, file server, mail server, print server, web server, gaming server, or some other kind of server.
In the context of client-server architecture, a server is a computer program running to serve the requests of other programs, the "clients". Thus, the "server" performs some computational task on behalf of "clients". The clients either run on the same computer or connect through the network.
In the context of Internet Protocol (IP) networking, a server is a program that operates as a socket listener.
Servers often provide essential services across a network, either to private users inside a large organization or to public users via the Internet.
Content Management System (CMS)
A content management system (CMS) is a computer program that allows publishing, editing and modifying content as well as maintenance from a central interface. Such systems of content management provide procedures to manage workflow in a collaborative environment. These procedures can be manual steps or an automated cascade.
The first content management system (CMS) was announced at the end of 1990s. This CMS was designed to simplify the complex task of writing numerous versions of code and to make the website development process more flexible. CMS platforms allow users to centralize data editing, publishing and modification on a single back-end interface.
Electronic commerce, commonly known as e-commerce, is the buying and selling of product or service over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. Electronic commerce draws on such technologies as electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web at least at one point in the transaction's life-cycle, although it may encompass a wider range of technologies such as e-mail, mobile devices and telephones as well.
Electronic commerce is generally considered to be the sales aspect of e-business. It also consists of the exchange of data to facilitate the financing and payment aspects of business transactions.
E-commerce can be divided into:
- E-tailing or "virtual storefronts" on Web sites with online catalogs, sometimes gathered into a "virtual mall"
- The gathering and use of demographic data through Web contacts and social media
- Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), the business-to-business exchange of data
- E-mail and fax and their use as media for reaching prospects and established customers (for example, with newsletters)
- Business-to-business buying and selling
- The security of business transactions
Mobile App Development
Cloud computing is the use of computing resources (hardware and software) that are delivered as a service over a network (typically the Internet). The name comes from the use of a cloud-shaped symbol as an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it contains in system diagrams. Cloud computing entrusts remote services with a user's data, software and computation.
There are many types of public cloud computing:
- Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
- Platform as a service (PaaS)
- Software as a service (SaaS)
- Storage as a service (STaaS)
- Security as a service (SECaaS)
- Data as a service (DaaS)
- Database as a service (DBaaS)
- Test environment as a service (TEaaS)
- Desktop virtualization
- API as a service (APIaaS)
- Backend as a service (BaaS)
Office 365 primarily denotes a set of subscription based software services that require monthly or periodic payment of fees to Microsoft Corporation. By contrast, Office 20XX generally refers to a suite of desktop applications that alone by themselves are not subscription based and do not carry monthly fees.
Although Office 365 also often refers to cloud-based services rather than desktop applications, certain Office 365 subscription plans include a subscription to Office 20XX desktop applications in addition to cloud-based services. The subscription to Office 20XX desktop applications, by virtue of the subscription, makes the subscription part of an Office 365 offering.
Office 365 was initially announced in the autumn of 2010, and was made available to the public on June 28, 2011. The initial subscription plans included a Professional plan (for organizations of 25 and smaller) and an Enterprise plan (for organizations with more individuals). Microsoft also offers a Dedicated and ITAR subscription model for large companies. The Office 365 Dedicated offering isolates servers to be used for only a single customer while ITAR (AKA Federal) offers a higher level of security (individual background checks and extremely-limited access to sensitive parts of the system by knowledge workers) that complies with the ITAR standard.
Depending on the subscription plan, Office 365 can include a subscription to Office 20XX desktop applications, in addition to hosted versions of Microsoft's Server products (including Exchange Server, SharePoint Server, and Lync Server) that are delivered and accessed over the Internet, in effect, the next version of Business Productivity Online Suite (BPOS).